NOTE: Always follow application instructions precisely, or you risk: personal injury, bee death including the queen, and creating pests resistant to the treatment.

Medication (see note)Active IngredientAdvantagesDisadvantagesCommentsTimingImage
Apivaramitra, a triazapentadiene compound, a member of the amidine chemical family (synthetic pesticide)* Contaminates HoneyUse with strict adherence to label directions (specifically the removal of strips after 42 days or a maximum of 56 days) on approved treatments reduces development of resistant Varroa populations.Cannot be used while bees are making honey
Remove 2 weeks prior to honey flow)
ApistanFluvalinate (synthetic pesticide) Easy to useMites are often resistant to ApistanNot effective
CheckmiteCoumaphos (organophosphate) organic pesticide Harsh chemical.
Application:  5-6 weeks (2 strips per brood chamber)
Mites often show tolerance
ApiLifeVarEssential Oils - thymol, eucalyptol, menthol, camphorNo resistance.  Also proven to be effective against tracheal mitesTime-consuming application: (3 apps. 7-10 days apart).
Temperature Sensitive.
Small hive beetles should be under control before using this medication.Cannot be used while bees are making honey nor with supers in place.
Mite-Away
Quick Strips
Formic AcidNo resistance.  Also proven to be effective against tracheal mites.Temperature Sensitive (apply when daytime high is between 50° and 92°).
Potentially dangerous to beekeeper.
Associated with queen loss, adult bee and brood mortality, and absconding when used during hot temperatures.
Reports of 95% control of mites. Use strictly as directed.  Formic acid can kill honeybees, including the Queen.  Visit www.miteaway.com.
The product’s efficacy is inconsistent and influenced by the amount of brood present and size of the hive being treated.
Can be used while bees are making honey with supers on colonies
Only effective when daytime high between 50° and 92°
ApiguardThymol (organic pesticide)Also active against tracheal mite and chalk brood.Strong odor & messy * can cause bee mortality if used in high temperatures and may incite robbing behavior to hives undergoing treatment.Thymol is a naturally occurring substance.  No harmful effects on colony.  Extremely easy to use.Cannot be used while bees are making honey nor with supers in place.
Hopguard IIPotassium salt of hop beta acidsNatural prod. No ill effects on hive functions. Low costLimited effect on mites sealed with bee pupaeExcellent for winter clean up of mitesCan be used while bees are making honey with supers on colonies
https://betatec.com/bee-health/
Powdered SugarPowdered Sugar
Note: store-bought PS contains cornstarch which irritates bee stomachs and is a fine particulate hard for bees to groom. Grind your own in blender.
Natural Ingredients.  May be used to reduce mite count in spring w/ supers on.Must apply consistently, several times per week for three weeks.Must be used in conjunction w/ screened bottom board or no bottom board.  Good emergency remedy for reducing mite count.

Medication (see note)

Problem

Active Ingredient

Advantages

Disadvantages

Comments

Apistan

Varroa mite-#1 killer of bees

Fluvalinate

 Easy to use

Mites are often resistant to Apistan. Kills only varroa.

Not effective

Checkmite

Varroa mite

Coumaphos (organophosphate)

 

Harsh chemical.

Application:  5-6 weeks (2 strips per brood chamber)

Mites often show tolerance

ApiLifeVar

Varroa mite

Essential Oils

No resistance.  Also proven to be effective against tracheal mites

Temperature Sensitive.

Time-consuming application:          (3 apps. 7-10 days apart).

Small hive beetles should be under control before using this medication.

Mite-Away

Quick Strips

Varroa mite

Formic Acid

No resistance.  Also proven to be effective against tracheal mites.

Temperature Sensitive (apply when daytime high is between 50° and 92°).

Potentially dangerous.

Reports of 95% control of mites. Use strictly as directed.  Formic acid can kill honeybees.  Visit www.miteaway.com.

Apiguard

Varroa Mite

Thymol

Also active against tracheal mite and chalk brood.

Strong odor & messy

Thymol is a naturally occurring substance.  No harmful effects on colony.  Extremely easy to use.

Hopguard

Varroa Mite

Potassium salt of hop beta acids

Natural prod. No ill effects on hive functions. Low cost

Limited effect on mites sealed with bee pupae

Excellent for winter clean up of mites

Powdered Sugar-sifted

Varroa Mite

Powdered Sugar

Natural Ingredients.  May be used to reduce mite count in spring w/ supers on.

Must apply consistently, several times per week for three weeks.

Must be used in conjunction w/ screened bottom board or no bottom board.  Good emergency remedy for reducing mite count.

Terramycin

American Foulbrood

European Foulbrood

Terramycin

(antibiotic)

 

Some resistance shown

AF best destroyed by fire.  Severe mite infestation & damage can simulate most of the foulbrood symptoms.

Fumagillin/Fumadil B

Nosema Apis & Ceranae

Antibiotic

Mix in syrup-spring/late summer

A microscopic fungus

Apis-defication streaks on the hive in spring

Ceranae-late summer population collapse

Tylan

American Foulbrood

European Foulbrood

Tylan

(antibiotic)

 

Expensive

Mix 1:100 with powdered sugar

Grease Patties

Tracheal mite

Vegetable Shortening & Crystal Sugar

Can leave in year round.

More beetles with patties.

Works by masking odor of young bees from mite.

Menthol

Tracheal mite

Menthol

 

Temperature sensitive

Requires a spacer

Moth Crystals

Wax Moth

Para dichlorobenzene

Effective for treating empty supers to prevent moth damage to drawn comb. 

Do not use in hives with live bees.

Air out equip before reusing-esp w/pkgs

Wax moth damage is the result of weak or declining hives in late summer.  Do not confuse moth crystals with moth balls (naphthalene). 

Checkmite

Small Hive Beetle

Coumaphos

 

Not effective when strip is placed in the cluster. 

Harsh chemical.

Beetle traps w/ checkmite are very effective . 

Beetle Bait Station

Beetle Barn

Beetle Jail

Small Hive Beetle

Veg oil, vinegar, and insecticide bait

Bait is effective.  Oil & vinegar are marginal and can be messy               

Insecticide is not an approved method.

Available from BJ.  Kills adult beetles in the hive. 

Gardstar

Small hive beetle pupae

Permethrin

Kills pupae stage in the soil.

Beetles have already reproduced and destroyed the bee colony.

Not a preventative.  Use only after beetles have reproduced. Use as a soil drench.